Essential Guide to Carbohydrates

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Essential Guide to Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are controversial among people trying to lose weight. Because individual carbohydrate needs aren’t one-size-fits-all, we’ve put together an informational guide to help you optimize your carbohydrate consumption and choose healthier options, whether you’re trying to lose weight, train for your first half-marathon or anything in between.

CARBOHYDRATE BASICS

Carbohydrates are found in almost all foods and provide 4 calories per gram. As you can imagine, not all carbohydrates are created equal. Different carbohydrates affect your body differently. Carbohydrate-containing foods generally have a combination of two types of carbohydrates: simple and complex.

SIMPLE CARBOHYDRATES

Simple carbs are also known as “sugar.” It’s made of up to two sugar building blocks connected in a chain. The building blocks can be glucose, fructose and galactose. Because the chains are short, they’re easy to break down, which is why they taste sweet when they hit your tongue. They are also digested and absorbed into the bloodstream quickly.

Foods high in simple carbohydrates include sweeteners (table sugar, syrup, honey), candy, jellies and jams and refined flour. Fruits, vegetables, beans and dairy contain simple carbs, too, but they come with vitamins and minerals, plus fiber and/or protein, so they’re still healthy choices.

COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES

Complex carbs can be either “starch” or “fiber.” This carbohydrate is made of three or more sugars connected in a chain; they also contain fiber and tend to come in foods that also contain protein and/or healthy fats, as well as vitamins and minerals. They use the same sugar building blocks as simple carbs, but the chains are longer and take more time to break down, which is why they don’t taste as sweet. The longer chains also slow digestion and thus absorption of the monosaccharides all carbs are broken down into, resulting in a more gradual insulin response, as well as increased satiety. Foods high in complex carbohydrates include bread, rice, pasta, beans, whole grains and vegetables.

Fiber is a carbohydrate, but it doesn’t contribute much to calories because it can’t be broken down and absorbed by the body. Just looking at a nutrition label, you’ll see “dietary fiber” and “sugar” listed under “total carbohydrates,” but the grams never add up. That’s because “total carbohydrates” includes all the types of carbohydrates: sugar, fiber and starch. Sugar and fiber get a starring role on the nutrition label because we care about them. However, starch doesn’t, so if you want to figure out how much starch a food contains, you have to do some math using the following formula:

Total starch (grams) = Total carbohydrate (g) – dietary fiber (g) – sugar (g)

CHOOSING THE RIGHT CARBS

When it comes to choosing carbohydrates to eat or drink, nutrient-dense sources are the way to go. Here are three rules to help you choose well. One caveat: If you’re a highly athletic person whose desire is to optimize performance, not all of these carb rules apply to you. Read this instead.

1. EAT MORE COMPLEX CARBS FROM WHOLE-FOOD SOURCES

Vegetables, beans, nuts and seeds, 100% whole-grain breads, pasta and brown rice should also be included in this rule. These foods are a source of fiber, vitamins, minerals and protein.

2. EAT FEWER COMPLEX CARBS FROM REFINED SOURCES

Foods like white rice, white bread and traditional pasta are more processed and have healthy nutrients — namely fiber — stripped from them.

3. EAT SIMPLE CARBS IN MODERATION

Most sources of simple carbohydrates are considered “empty calories” because they’re high in calories but contain little to no micronutrients. They’re a likely culprit when it comes to spiking blood sugar. Fruit and milk are exceptions to this rule because they contain beneficial vitamins and minerals.

TARGET CARBOHYDRATE NEEDS

To perform basic functions, our bodies need carbs, particularly glucose since it’s the preferred fuel for tissues and organs — and the only fuel for our red blood cells. Without enough carbohydrates, the body breaks down hard-earned protein from muscles and organs to create usable glucose.

The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for carbohydrates is 130 grams per day. This is the minimum amount required to fuel an adult’s brain, red blood cells and central nervous system optimally. Without enough carbohydrates to maintain your blood sugar in a happy range, the body starts breaking down protein — lean muscle tissue — into glucose to bring blood sugar back to normal.

The RDA of 130 grams carbohydrates per day is a minimum for adult bodies to function properly. Most people need more. According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, carbohydrates should make up 45–65% of total calories in our diet. It’s such a big range because our bodies are all different and there’s no one-size-fit-all guidance for the absolute amount of carbs you should consume.

MyFitnessPal allots 50% of your calories to carbohydrates, but we encourage you to change these goals based on your personal needs.

To determine your carbohydrate needs in grams:

  1. Decide what percentage of carbohydrates you need and convert that number to a decimal (for example, 50% is 0.5).
  2. Multiply your “Total Calorie Goal” by the decimal value. This gives you the number of calories from carbohydrates.
  3. Divide that number by 4 to get the grams of carbohydrates.

If you’re not sure what percentage might be most appropriate, read more about how to optimize your macronutrient ranges, or follow this general rule of thumb:

If you’re looking to lose weight, start by keeping your carb intake to 45–50% of your calories. If you’re exercising vigorously for more than 1 hour per day or training for an endurance event like a marathon, you may do better in the 55–65% range.

WHAT TO KNOW ABOUT GOING LOW-CARB

A traditional “low-carb” diet has 40% or less calories coming from carbohydrates. There’s no denying that many have lost weight and kept it off successfully with this lifestyle. It’s popular for a reason, but it certainly is not the only way to lose weight — and it may not be for everyone.

Eating a low-carb diet (especially a restrictive one) affects your blood sugar levels, which can cause unfavorable side-effects in some people, including being mildly to downright uncomfortable, shakiness, nervousness or anxiety, chills, irritability, lightheadedness, headaches, hunger, nausea, fatigue, blurred vision, lack of coordination and more. These effects and the restriction required can make a low-carb diet difficult to stick with.

If you choose to experiment with eating fewer carbs, here are six tips to make the transition sustainable:

1. DEAL WITH BLOOD SUGAR LOWS

It may be tough to tell your reaction to low blood sugar since it varies from person to person. When starting a low-carb diet, be on the lookout for the signs and symptoms of low blood sugar (see above). If you experience them, eat a small serving of a carbohydrate-rich snack such as a piece of fruit, some crackers or a slice of bread.

2. EASE INTO A LOWER-CARB LIFESTYLE

Use the app to track your food for at least a week so you have a good understanding of how many grams of carbohydrates you consume daily. Then, slowly step down your carbohydrate intake goal by 5–10% (or about 30–50 grams daily) each week until you reach your desired goal. Remember to increase your fat and protein goals to offset the carbohydrates you’re reducing from your diet.

3. CHOOSE BALANCES, NUTRIENT-DENSE FOODS

Make those carbs count by choosing high-quality carbohydrates — like whole grains, fruits and vegetables — that are packed with fiber, vitamins and minerals. Choose high-quality proteins like eggs, legumes, chicken, tofu and lean cuts of beef and pork. Opt for healthy fats from foods that contain monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, such as fish, nuts, avocados and olive oil.

4. STAY HYDRATED

If you’re slashing carbs, you’ll most likely eat (and digest) more protein. For your body to break down and use protein optimally, it’s going to need plenty of water. Check out these 20 ways to drink more water.

5. BE WARY OF RAPID WEIGHT LOSS

If you shed more than 2 pounds per week, be careful. You’re likely losing more water weight and lean muscle than fat. Up your calories to lose weight at a slow but fat-busting pace.

6. GAUGE YOUR HAPPINESS

Be honest with yourself: Are you happy eating a low-carb diet? Do you feel good? Our bodies can adapt to eating varying amounts of carbohydrates, but for some, the carbohydrate cravings and blood sugar side effects can be constant struggles. If you feel like your diet is too low in carbohydrates, don’t be afraid to add some back. Aggressively cutting carbs isn’t the only way to lose weight, and certainly isn’t for everyone. Keep this in mind because you’re more likely to stick to your goals, lose weight and keep it off if you feel good and are happy with what goes into your body.

WHAT TO KNOW ABOUT A HIGHER-CARB REGIMEN

Eating a higher-carbohydrate diet is beneficial to performance for daily exercise in moderate to vigorous aerobic activity (think running, swimming, biking) because the more carbs you eat, the more glucose you allow your body to store in the form of muscle glycogen. The more glycogen you store, the more fuel you have available for your next bout of exercise.

For optimal athletic performance, it’s the absolute amount of carbohydrates (in grams) you eat that matters, not the percentage of total calories that comes from carbs. Use this general guideline to calculate the recommended grams of carbs you should eat daily to enhance athletic performance. Use these calculations to change your carbohydrate goal in the MyFitnessPal app.

Source:  C.A. Rosenbloom, E.J. Coleman (Eds.) Sports Nutrition A Practice Manual for Professionals. 5th edition. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Chicago, IL; 2012.

If you’re a runner, you can learn more about “carb loading” and how to adjust carbohydrate goals for running.


READ MORE ESSENTIAL GUIDES

> Fat
> Protein
> Macros


About the Author

MyFitnessPal
MyFitnessPal

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