4 Signs You’re Eating Too Little When Trying to Lose Weight

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4 Signs You’re Eating Too Little When Trying to Lose Weight

If you’re trying to lose weight, it’s pretty cut and dry, right? Cut as many calories from your diet as possible. Unfortunately, it’s possible to eat too little, which not only makes it harder for you to achieve a healthy weight, but can also cause other health problems.

The first thing you should ask yourself is, “Why do I want to lose weight?” This seems simple. It’s usually to fit into smaller clothes or to look better. But these reasons can cause you to make decisions that aren’t necessarily in your best health interest. Eating below your needs is just one example of that and, unfortunately, it can backfire big time.

Everyone has a set amount of calories, or energy, they need to simply be alive. Consistently eating less than this can cause your metabolism to slow down and your body to begin preserving what it can to survive. Hunger and feeling full aren’t the only indicators of whether you’re fueling your body appropriately. In fact, if you aren’t eating enough consistently, you may notice some of these other signs as well.

1. YOU’RE TIRED

Our bodies are fueled by the foods we eat, so if we don’t eat enough, our energy levels can also wane. Whether you’re skipping meals or limiting the types of food you eat, eating too few calories also means you’re taking in too few nutrients. Research shows you need all the macronutrients – carbohydrates, protein and fat – for sustained energy. That said, vitamins and minerals are also essential in regulating the production of energy. When you skimp on calories, it becomes much more difficult to get all these important elements your body needs to function properly.


READ MORE > ASK THE DIETITIAN: SHOULD I EAT BACK MY EXERCISE CALORIES?


2. YOU’RE CRANKY

Feeling more irritable than normal can be another key indicator you aren’t supplying your body with enough fuel to get through the day. Skimping on carbohydrates can be particularly problematic when it comes to mood stabilization. Without enough carbs, your blood-sugar levels may dip too low because the body doesn’t have enough sugar, or glucose, to use as fuel.

3. YOU’RE CONSTIPATED

To help preserve energy, your digestive tract may move food through your system more slowly when you restrict your intake below what your body needs for an extended period of time. This can cause constipation. In addition, not getting enough fiber regularly — which is challenging to do even when you do eat enough to meet your needs — can also increase the likelihood of constipation.

4. YOU CAN’T LOSE THOSE LAST FIVE POUNDS

More isn’t necessarily better. You usually lose weight when you run a calorie deficit, but if you’re finding you just can’t lose those last few pounds, it’s possible you’re either training too hard, eating too little or some combination of the two. Smaller deficits (think 250–500 calories) are often all you need to see longer-term weight loss. Plus, this won’t trigger your body to go into self-preservation mode the same way, drastically restricting your intake often does. Although dropping your calories to significantly low levels may provide you with quick weight loss in the beginning, it can be detrimental to your health and set the stage for weight regain in the future. 

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  • Thanks for sharing this. I fear many people are deceived by the “1200 calories per day and endless cardio” myth perpetuated by misinformed purveyors of health “information.” I didn’t start building good muscle, losing fat and seeing better body composition until I started eating a LOT more calories — and it’s only getting better!

    • Otis

      So, you totally disregard your basal metabolic rate and just “go for broke” eating “a LOT more” calories? Ridiculous. Calories in-calories out. That is the crux of the matter and reason why so many fail to lose anything but money to weight loss/fitness charlatans. Wreck less statement, Theresa. Out of curiosity, how effective was cranking up your caloric intake with regard to weight loss?

      • Otis, I increased my caloric intake to support an increase in physical activity. Eating too few calories when engaged in a comprehensive strength training and cardiovascular program will undermine results and lead to fatigue and injury. Due to some personal health issues, I’m currently on a weight *gain* regimen, eating around 2800 per day and seeing my body composition changing for the better literally day by day. I have gained a significant amount of muscle mass over the last couple of years and am healthier and stronger than I have ever been. I tend to start losing weight on about 2500 per day, which is significantly higher than what most people think of when considering weight loss.

        I agree that BMR and personal weight goals must be taken into account, but the point of the article is to highlight the problems that can occur when people assume “less is better” in terms of caloric intake and weight loss.

        For the record, I do not “go for broke.” I log every calorie and track my macros daily so that I can hit my goal weight. Going for broke, as you say, is just as erroneous and dangerous as eating too little and smacks of broscience.

        • newguy40

          …increased my caloric intake to support an increase in physical activity. Eating too few calories when engaged in a comprehensive strength training and cardiovascular program will undermine results and lead to fatigue and injury.”

          Excellent point. Me too. Coming back from knee surgery and I’ve been trying to get the caloric intake to match my increased activity. I’m not trying to lose weight. I think I’d be better off with a few extra pounds rather than be fatigued and crabby.

        • La Bandita

          This only works for high performing athletes. Because it turns the weight into muscle. And even those guys gain weight once their no longer performing like they use to -when life gets in the way. But for the regular Joe’s at the gym they just end up gaining weight. Once your body gets use to the extra calories there’s no going back. The goal is to maintain your current calories and work within that while eating high fat foods to give you the energy you need to work out for long term with no injury.

          • Kim

            You don’t have to be a high performing athlete for this to work. I’d like to know, are you a nutritionist? You seem to have quite a few opinions regarding this subject. Not everyone sees weight loss success the same way. From what I have read, you seem to feel there is only one way. Some need to take in more calories, some need to restrict. Each individual person needs to find out what works for him/her. Who are you to say otherwise?

          • La Bandita

            Just helping an internet friend in these estreets. But Im a division 1 athlete married to a baller – shot caller. And the ladies who’ve done that gained 50 pounds. Do you, but once your body gets use to extra calories – that’s your new body – enjoy.

  • lawrence_lee

    I was paid 104000 bucks previous 12 month period by doing a web based task as well as I was able to do it by w­orking in my own time f­o­r quite a few hours every day. I applied work opportunity I stumbled upon on the internet and also I am thrilled that I was capable of to make such decent earnings. It’s genuinely newbie-friendly and I’m so grateful that I found out about it. Look out for what I do… http://shrty­.­link/BaQXOB

  • fallandrise

    Point number 4 is fat logic, and I’m disappointed MFP is spreading the starvation mode myth. It’s certainly much harder to maintain a large deficit and harder to continue to lose through “those last 5 pounds” at a very large deficit, but your body will not magically hold onto your fat because you’re eating too little.

    • precinct13

      What’s the problem? If you can’t shift the last five pounds, just set your weight goal 5lbs lower than your ideal weight. Problem solved!

      • jacqueline.burton

        I was paid 104000 dollars last 12 months by doing an online work as well as I was able to do it by w­orking in my own time f­o­r several hours on a regular basis. I utilized work opportunity I found on the net and also I am delighted that I was capable of to make such decent money. It is really newbie-friendly and therefore I am so grateful that I found out about it. Look into what I do… http://secure10­.­weebly­.­com

        • precinct13

          In your case any food is too much. And oxygen.

          • Lori Green

            LOL

      • Lori Green

        🙂

    • He-Man

      Right, and that’s where otherwise good articles like this get trashed because they contain stuff that simply isn’t true, but is commonly believed. I’m sorry, but starvation mode where someone eats too few calories and doesn’t loose weight over an extended period of time is just not really a thing. If this were the case, people dying of starvation in the concentration camps would somehow be fat despite having less than 500 calories a day.

      As I mentioned, the metabolic adaption was shown to mostly cancel out the deficit in some individuals, but this probably had more to do with their starting BMR and metabolic health than any mythical starvation mode.

      • Suzanne Elvidge

        Oh – you all beat me to it on the starvation mode myth. Really bugs me!!

        • I was paid 104000 dollars previous 12 months by doing an on-line work moreover I was able to do it by w­orking in my own time f­o­r several hours every day. I tried job opportunity I stumbled upon on the net and I am excited that I was manage to earn such great money. It is really newbie-friendly and I am so delighted that I found out regarding it. Take a look at what I do… http://urll­.­in/PrdYo

      • Courtney

        I have battled eating disorders on and off. Now I will say I am a under eater. Its hard for me to eat a healthy 900 calories. But if I eat horribly I will reach it quickly. So by poor choices I am a under eater yet over weight. Also probably has little to do with my thyroid issues also. Starve mode is still eating but I can go from 7 am until 3 pm and not eat until I get a massive migraine then its like duh eat so then I eat bad choices to try to get rid of the migraine and its a cycle that goes on for years bc I would each once maybe twice a day. So just bc I am overweight doesn’t mean I over eat.

        • La Bandita

          Most overweight people are in denial about what they actual eat. And many honestly think they don’t eat enough – when they eat too much.

          If you’re eating ‘bad’ I doubt you’re only eating 900 calories of bad food.

          • Jeff

            She was saying it is easy to reach 900 calories when you are eating bad. Not that she stopped at 900 when eating junk. She was trying to make a point that you can be overweight and still not eat a lot because of bad food choices. Volume you eat doesn’t always equate to size. Here is an extreme example a 55 gallon drum of shredded lettuce has about the same calories as almost 5 cups of Crisco shortening. (5 calories for a cup of shredded lettuce and 906 calories in a cup of shortening.)

          • La Bandita

            It still doesn’t mathematically makes sense as she said she’s an under eater. If she’s overweight and only eating 900 calories she will loose weight regardless if its good OR bad calories. Me at 137 pounds eats 1200 calories. If I ate only 900 calories of bad food I will still loose weight, because of the 300 calorie deficit. I have done it in the pass.

            Also, it has already been proven that fat doesn’t make you fat – it leaves you full and nobody will drink 5 cups of Crisco shortening. You can add a spoon full if you’re into shortening – I would use Avocado oil also fattening and high calorie, but good for you. And the 55 gallon drum of lettuce will leave you hungry if you don’t add something high fat to it like walnuts or avocado or raisins.

          • you are incorrect saying if you eat 900 calories a day you will lose weight. I am proof that does not have to happen!Then again, I am not your average person 🙂 I have had diabetes for 39 years type one brittle and have gastroparesis and atrophy in my stomach. My metabolism is very shut down and I can literally go ALL day with no food and NOT be hungry. When I do get hungry I actually get excited because I know something is working again…sad… anyways I too have battled a few ED’s since 7th grade which also has not helped and though I do eat mostly raw food/vegetarian diet and try to stay away from ‘white’ simple carbs and stay to more complex carbs and higher protein it isn’t easy. I struggle just to maintain where I am at and I am fanatical about what I eat. I eat around 800-1000 calories a day. it is only when I hit under 700-800 that I will start to drop weight again I almost never eat junk food, fast food or any of that I really do not like it…and it makes me sick.
            Part of what they neglect to mention in this article is the exercise quotient..something I can not do much of due to my disabilities so that alone hinders my weight loss. Mind you I am not grossly overweight but would like to see a good 20 lb loss still it is hard….for some harder than others …
            I do have to agree most who over eat are in denial about how much they eat and what they actually DO intake. OR it could be all the small things adding up most don’t think of IE: the ketchup on those fries (shudders) the best thing to do to see exactly what you are consuming is to make a diary and write EVERYTHING you put in your mouth…there is no denying then!

          • La Bandita

            Then you’re not compare apples to apples.

            We’re talking of a normal non diabetic healthy person without an atrophy stomach. You need to compare yourself to a diabetic atrophy person.

            The fact remains if you’re healthy otherwise, but overweight and you eat 900 calories good or bad – you will automatically lose weight. Cutting calories to lose weight works. Stop pretending otherwise.

          • Grin

            This is untrue you cannot lose weight by eating 900 calories. Also everyone’s body is different. I gained a lot of weight by not eating enough of the right foods. Then when I ate more of the right foods that’s when the pounds started to shed.

          • La Bandita

            If you’re eating 3000 calories to maintain your weight at 5 2 900 calories will make you lose weight.

            Put it this way a deficit of 500 calories a week will make you lose weight – is that better? That’s something everyone agrees. You will then have to clean up your diet once you plateau. And once you plateau again you will have to add exercise.

          • Reality check

            Why do you have to be such a PIA? Who do you think you are? You are FOS!!!!

          • La Bandita

            Stop being loco.

          • Jim

            You are right. Let us not forget 85 year old women that are 5 feet or shorter and weight 80 pounds. This would of course be a person that will soon be dead from a wasting disease like cancer as their BMI is severely underweight.

          • Walt Corey

            Your body has no concept of right foods vs wrong foods, in the end, by the time the food is metabolized, it is either carbohydrates with or without fiber, protein, or fat. A calorie is merely a unit of energy which equate to 4184 Joules/calorie, 100 calories of chocolate syrup has the same number of joules (418,400) as 100 calories of lettuce.

          • Grin

            Apparently it does if you gain or lose weight.

          • Walt Corey

            you really don’t know how this works, do you?

          • Michelle

            Have you been tested for Celiac Disease?

          • JJ

            There is a fallacy to your thinking. I eat less than 1200 calories per day. I eat few carbs, mostly meat & veggies. I track my calories as close as I can with a tracker. I do NOT lose any weight, even though I eat healthy and I eat less than what my caloric intake should/could be. May not make sense, but I’ve been tracking it for 3 months, watching my intake, counting calories and weighing in every day. No change! We’re not all built the same. I am healthy, I am not diabetic. But, I don’t lose weight easily.

          • I was paid 104000 dollars last 12 month period by doing a web based work and also I was able to do it by w­orking in my own time f­o­r several hours each day. I tried work opportunity I found out on-line and so I am excited that I was in a position to make such decent earnings. It’s seriously newbie-friendly and I’m so pleased that I found out regarding it. Take a look at exactly what I do… http://b1z­.­org/384

          • Walt Corey

            Here is one thing that can and likely is an issue with many, insulin resistance. First, ppl should consider resistance, as in antibiotics, drug, alcohol. Resistance is the result of persistent high levels of something, be it pot, antibiotics, or, in this case, insulin. What causes this? Persistent and high levels of insulin…non-stop eating. This is why fasting is important to break the persistent and high adjectives. Eating food causes your body to signal its time to feed the cells. Eating should cause a brief spike in insulin levels. As one develops resistance that short spike is not enough to induce cells to allow the elevated blood glucose to enter the cells (why we eat at all). This causes the pancreas to generate more insulin so that turns the spike into a persistent and high level. Chap 10 in Obesity Code covers this. Effectively you body can not use the glucose from eating so it is turned into fat, first liver then rest of body. Your body will not use the fat until you unwind the insulin resistance. This is where fasting helps as it forces a break in the persistent part of persistent and high. You can also google diet doctor. Something else to consider, as far as being hungry. Are you hungry because you need to eat or your body is saying it’s time to eat? Think of Pavlov’s dogs experiments. Also the brain has difficulty differentiating hunger from thirst so drink 16 oz of water and wait 30 mins before you eat.

          • La Bandita

            1200 calories is a lot of good food, that’s what I eat to and I am 137 pounds- between 0 and 2. This only works if you were eating 3000 calories and cut it to 1200 otherwise it’s a healthy amount of food to maintain your body weight.

          • JJ

            I think your calorie counter might need repair. A 140 pound woman with a moderately active lifestyle needs to eat about 1800 calories a day. With no exercise at all, about 1500 calories a day. I switched from unhealthy eating with lots of carbs to a paleo eating plan: 3 meals a day, meat and vegetables. The average breakfast is about 300 calories, lunch and dinner each about 400. There is no bread, pasta, potato, or dairy. So, it is NOT a lot of food but it is clean eating with no snacking in between.

          • La Bandita

            You see that’s where the individuality comes in. Im between 130 &137 – I just had a baby. So 137 is my baby weight. 1200 calories is lots of calories FOR ME and its lots of food. Im eating all day everyday – mucho happiness.

          • JJ

            Congratulations! But I don’t know how you’re eating all day long at 1200 cal. What are you eating

          • La Bandita

            Naughty nuts, lol – chocolate covered almonds and cashews. Almond oils, avocado oils and butter on everything. Fresh pasta made out of zucchini and spinach and sweet potato. Mash papas made out of cauliflower. And really expensive cheeses, the more expensive the less likely to get any stomach issues. Cheap cheese is my nemesis, grrrrr.

          • Walt Corey

            You both are skirting the cause, or at least a cause. Most people thing BMR is cast in stone, whether you use a web based calculator based on age and sex (I thought sex was a verb or adverb/gerund and gender was presence/absence of Y chromosome. So now, thanks to trans, I am confused…off topic, sry) or MFP goal page. The Mifflin St Jeor equation is just that, a mathematical approximation of what it SHOULD be. Anyone who has done a calorie reduction diet for any length of time no longer fits the mathematical model so to say I should be at nnn cal/day is likely wrong. Google “kevin hall biggest loser metabolic adaptation”. They did a scientific study of, as I recall, season 14 of biggest loser contestants and all but one regained every pound, not because of returning to old ways but their BMR dropped as much as like 600 cal/day below what Mifflin St Jeor would predict. So for someone to say I consume 900 cal/day and can’t lose weight perhaps that’s because rather than having 1500 cal/day be steady state, she is now at 900 cal/day for steady state. The only way to accurately tell is through medical testing. I believe it involves measuring O2 consumption but it definitely is not using MFP or a web calculator. In theory, it does eventually correct but, in the case of The Biggest Loser, not within 6 yrs.
            This is another reason why fasting works, as the 5th phase of how a body responds is kicking in heightened levels of HGH and adrenalin to keep metabolism high. But, as it relates to this article (losing weight) there is no such thing as ‘eating too little’.

          • Lorie Foster

            I am doing the same as you, JJ. I have switched to Paleo a year ago and only eat my carbs around my workouts. My fitness coach has me at 1750 Cal. per day (I’m at 168 Lbs. right now). I began with Personal Training and Nutrition Coaching 15mo. ago and had been keeping my Cals. below 1200. I still struggle getting 1750 in…but I come very close. I have lost 90 lbs. and 55 ins. once I upped my calories.

          • Jodi Wilcome

            I agree 100%. I’ve been logging everything. My super thin friends all say “calories in, calories out” so I must be binging on twinkles all day right? They say “diet is about 80%” and I logged to prove that, no, it isn’t. When I do warm yoga for 3+ days a week And do not count calories I usually begin losing weight within four weeks.

          • Robin

            If you are having trouble losing weight even though you are counting calories the problem may be what you are eating. Though some foods maybe considered healthy, like chicken, I cannot eat it often because it causes me to gain weight or it prevents me from losing it. Refer to “eat right 4 your blood type”

          • Alexandra Castro

            so fun you say that because I monitored all my food for 3 months and realized that even eating bellow 1000 kcal a day I would only loose weight if I stopped with ALL kind of carbs. That is the way my body reacts to calorie intake.

          • Walt Corey

            There are no ‘good’ or ‘bad’ calories. A calorie is a unit of energy ultimately converted to joules (physical unit of energy). There are, however, good and bad food.

          • Jeff

            You are missing my point which is there are calorie dense foods and getting a lot of calories is easy because they don’t fill you up. That is why I called my example an extreme example, it was meant to be an analogy of caloric density, not an actual diet example. She also said she eats 900 calories when she makes the proper food choices and if she doesn’t make good choices her caloric intake is much greater. She isn’t in denial of what she is eating, she is giving examples of her poor choices and why it is hard for her to loose weight.

          • La Bandita

            I get what you’re saying but I didn’t get that from her. I understood from her that she ate once or twice a day only 900 calories. But because she gets headaches the 900 calories are bad choices. She says she under eats and is overweight.

            I understand caloric density – I live off of calorie dense food, anyway she has a thyroid issue so it’s not applicable.

          • Jeff

            I got from her she eats 900 healthy calories and when she makes bad choices she eats way over 900 calories.

          • La Bandita

            Nooo, she only eats 900 calories total, but is overweight, because the calories are bad.

          • Jeff

            We will have to agree to disagree on that one.

          • Judee Westin

            Calories aren’t bad or good. They are just fuel for the body.

          • La Bandita

            I know that – I am repeating what the lady up thread stated. Anyway, once she said she had a health issue I should have left it alone.

          • Ariana

            She also said she had a thyroid condition and having one myself that makes a world of a difference.

          • La Bandita

            I agree and noted that in my comment. People with health conditions of course this doesn’t apply to them.

        • Jim

          It might be hard for you to eat 900 healthy calories but its not hard for you to eat more total calories then required to maintain a healthy weight if you are overweight. Because yes by physics and biology if you are overweight its because you over ate.

          Science matters.

          • Lori Green

            That is just not true Jim. You see she has a medical problem? Thyroid regulates metabolism.

        • kanewberry

          Find a GOOD Endocrinologist! Please do NO ignore your thyroid issues!!

          • Lori Green

            From my experience..having pretty much the same problem, I am never hungry, i have Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis, and have had it since 12, never overweight till lungs injured in a fire, then prednisone, my nemesis, ( 45 lbs in 7 weeks) kicked in. I dont over eat..i am never hungry, my kids and family constantly hound me because I dont eat enough..I tried the eat more to lose weight..slowly increasing my calories for 2 yrs till i reached 1800, but it didnt work..I dont gain weight unless i am on prednisone but i cant lose it either…AND THE ENDOCRINOLIGISTS DO NOTHING FOR HYPOTHYROIDISM. The give you levothyroxine..now blood hormorne levels say they are good. But why is my hair still falling out, why am I not hungry, why am I fatigued, why cant I sleep..? Because the hormones they give us dont work. I asked about alternative treatments, gluten free, dairy..blah ..they said there is no medical proof and they dont advise that I do that. They advise me to excercise. I walk and am moderately active. Work in a fast paced environment. I dont go to the gym ..only my belly is large from cortisol overload and prednisone and they say that is better than not breathing. How do you lose weight if you dont over eat and are NOT in denial?

        • BadDog40

          Start following Fitness Pal, and you’ll be in good shape in no time.

        • Louise Joyce

          I find that I burn about 2,700 calories a day and eat about 1200 – 1500 a day. I wasn’t losing weight at all. I’ll tell you why: if you eat barely anything but eat only unhealthy stuff (especially sugar and carbs), your body will still have enough to burn without you losing weight. Your body practically lives on carbs. If you want to lose weight I’d say you should eat healthier things like vegetables (they are good carbs, bad carbs are starches), fruit (in moderation, treat fruit like a dessert), and cheeses. You can still eat your cookie or your toast, but don’t eat a whole box of Oreos. Moderation is key in dieting.

        • Victoria Cross

          You should keep protein shakes shakes or smoothies handy so have an alternative to eating junk at 3 pm. You can get them ready to drink or powdered and mix with water; just make sure they’re cold.

      • Reality

        Full of shit.

      • BadDog40

        Sorry, not true. I starved my body of protein for 2 years (Didn’t know any better) I started my Fitness Pal, and in 29 days lost 5 lbs.

        Concentration camps: Again not true. If you’re there for 2-3 yrs. @ 500 calories, your body Must use the fat to stay alive.

      • Daniel Larson

        Dear He-man, this just goes to show your lack of knowledge. This article is about reducing calories too much and ] accidentally did this a few years back. I wasn’t losing any more weight no matter how little I ate. I went to a nutritionist and found I was only eating 900 to 1200 calories a day. I added about 600 calories to my daily intake and then dropped almost 25 pounds.

    • Matt Cusack

      you eat too little you slow your metabolism too much and you can gain or not loose any weight.

    • Cecily

      You will still lose weight eating too little BUT if you are eating too little of certain things like protein, you will lose muscle too. You still need to eat enough to maintain your muscles and organs and stay relatively active to keep that muscle.

    • Blckduck

      This starvation ideology is true. I am experiencing it right now. i am working with a nutritionist to tweak my eating. I have gotten an accurate body fat reading in a BOD POD and tracked it over two months. I lost lean muscle and my body fat went up. I have to either eat more or lower my cardio.

    • Joy

      Yes, It will.

    • #?

      Metabolic Adaptation has thousands of studies on it not to mention any competent fitness expert or dietician stresses caution where caloric deficits or surpluses are concerned. Layman terms like metabolic damage or starvation mode may misinterpret what’s really happening but the fact is it happens. The body does start to be frugal with fat mass but only for as long as there is still water mass to use as energy (catabolism) and no stimulus to retain it. You get skinny fat before you get skinny. All extreme or prolonged caloric deficits eventually lead to disproportionate percentages of fat to lean muscle mass which is why bodybuilders employ proven dietary techniques like carb cycling to preserve muscle and slow down metabolic adaptation when cutting. No magic, just proven science.

    • PaleoDave

      So metabolic adaptation is not real?

  • disqus_hS4IldkNbt

    “Plus, this won’t trigger your body to go into self-preservation mode, which may provide you with quick weight loss in the beginning, but set the stage for you to gain it back in the future.” So if people want to gain weight they should eat less? Sounds legit

    • Walt Corey

      no such thing as self preservation mode

      • La Bandita

        Agreed this is a big lie.

  • Jim

    Where is the peer reviewed study showing number 4?

    • Suzanne Elvidge

      I can only upvote your comment once. Sorry. Have 4 extra…

  • Walt Corey

    There are two books that should be of interest to those wanting to lose weight, 1) Obesity Code (Jason Fung MD) and 2) Complete Guide to Fasting (Jason Fung, MD) and as a bonus, The Eight Week Blood Sugar Diet (Michael Mosley, MD). You can also do IF (intermittent fasting), like 3 meals one day, one meal the next, rinse/repeat. There is very good SCIENCE on this stuff now.

    • PaleoDave

      I seem to recall that the medical researcher who wrote “Alternate Day Fasting” also showed that participants had no slowing of their metabolism. So the IF approaches may become known to be better than more traditional longer term daily caloric reduction. I think because there is so much information in general on this topic that many people may not get this info because so much just looks like noise. But you are right about the increasing good science! Hopefully more people come across it and find it helpful.

  • Walt Corey

    The body’s response to fasting is as follows:
    1)feeding
    2) Post absorbtive phase – six to 24 hrs after feeding. The breakdown of glycogen (stored from step 1) to glucose
    3)Glucose neogenesis where the body produces glucose from glycerol and amino acids
    4) Ketosis – like Atkins Diet or other Keto Diets… The body turns fat into glucose and ketones.
    So yes, the body is designed to actually burn fat all on it’s own, no exercise required. Information from aforementioned Obesity Code, as a second source.

    • La Bandita

      Exercise is necessary for continue heart and lung development. Even the brain is better after exercise. This is how thin people get heart attacks. You can be thin and out of shape.

      • Walt Corey

        There is so much misinformation about diet out there and much of it comes from people reportedly experts in dieting. Exercise is very good in assisting the uptake of glucose into cells but from the perspective of pure weight loss not so much. I’m not against exercise, I do it all the time I am against misinformation.

        • La Bandita

          Which is what you’re doing by saying no exercise required. There is nothing bad about exercising. Nothing. And it is not just a means for weight loss. Little kids run around for a reason – its pure joy and bliss.

          • Walt Corey

            I am not saying that, medical doctors, endocrinologists, are. There is nothing wrong with the pure joy and Bliss of little kids running around but that has nothing to do with weight lifting or exercise and trying to lose weight. Fung devotes a whole chapter to The Myth of Exercise, in his book, The Obesity Code. There is not a claim or stmt he makes not footnoted by proof, studies and/or experts.

          • La Bandita

            Exercise is not a myth. It just has taken on different forms. This is just its equivalent. Generations ago exercise wasn’t necessary because people were more physical. Modern day exercise is its equivalent. And some people like myself need exercise. But other’s that don’t like it can do other things they love like gardening and such. But you can’t lie on a couch or sit at a chair and fast and say exercise is a myth. You will lose all of your muscle tone and get slouchy.

            ETA: I’ve seen thin sickly non exercising people – its not a good look having your butt touch the ground.

          • Walt Corey

            We seem to be having two different conversations and your half seems to be more religious than factual so we’re probably better off just leaving it as it is. Good luck to you.

          • La Bandita

            You’re not being factual nor am I. We’re both talking about what works for us individually – get it. Fasting works for petite small bone men and women with low to no muscle tone. It works on old people as well as most of their muscle tone atrophies at a certain age – unless they were high performing athletes like my dad who had a six pack into his 70s . For a person like myself medium bone and that builds muscles easily that would kill me. I wake up in the morning starving.

          • Walt Corey

            sweetie, if you want to come after me, read a book or three on the subject. Stop the silly “joy of watching little children play outdoors” BS. Everything I’ve said I can document from, books and other sources from medical doctors and researchers.

          • Walt Corey

            you appear to be, yet another, internet troll. Troll someone else.

  • precinct13

    Re point 3, whilst fibre is important a common reason for constipation on a restricted calorie diet is simple dehydration. Drink more water and learn to accept that peeing every fifteen minutes is the price for reaching your ideal weight.

  • liftchickadee

    250-500 calorie deficit… sure, but explain where those “calories” will be cut from. Explain macronutrients when you discuss “weight loss” in an article.
    Firstly, the goal when cutting is to lose fat mass while maintaining as much muscle mass as possible which is accomplished by adjusting our energy sourced “macros”, carbs and fats. A deficit should be a percentage based off of our body fat, TDEE, BMR and fitness/nutrition goals, (which is different for every single person) and macronutrient requirements based off of our lean mass, not some general “250-500” calorie clump. Where does 500 calories come from? 55.5g of fat? 125g of protein or carbs?? Not exactly. It’s a combination of each.

    It’s not that cut and dry. You mention the importance of macronutrients early in the article, but sadly, you diminish it by suggesting a general “calorie” deficit.

    If you’re serious about losing fat mass, invest some time in researching macronutrients (or the IIFYM community) and a scale that gives a read on your body fat. Don’t ever just cut an ambiguous amount of “calories”.

    • Jim

      If you’re serious about losing fat mass lower your calories consumed lower then the calories needed for maintenance. IIFYM can help but a a calorie deficit is the only requirement.

  • Rita Filice

    I should be eating 1240 Cal a day but can’t seem to reach that .the most I reach is 1000 and even then I find I’m not that hungry .what can I Do? Any suggestions

    • percysowner

      Good question. I’m recording everything I eat and I usually hit between 1000-1100 and I’m done. I tend to throw in something “bad” if I’m too close to 1000, a beer, a soda, 1/4 ice cream. Probably the wrong approach, but that’s how I handle it.

      • Rita Filice

        Yes but that bad part will also bring your fats proteins, sugar ectopic. Up also so I don’t think that it’s a healthy approch

    • AMG

      You could try juicing, that way you’re upping your calories and your fruit/veggie servings. The juices can be filling so even though can take some getting used to but it’s easy than forcing another meal down when you’re just not feeling it.

      • AMG

        that* not though

      • Rita Filice

        Thanks never thought of that I will definitely try that

  • Iris

    Starvation mode is not a myth – I am a perfect example – I lived on coffee all day and did not eat my first meal until 2pm. No matter what I ate I could not lose weight – went on Jenny craig and couldn’t lose weight and was gaining weight on 1000 calories a day. Went to a dietician that told me it was not what I was eating but how. She told me I had shut off my metabolism. She put me on 6 small meals per day (with the first small meal within 30 minutes of waking) with more food than I have ever eaten and the weight started dropping 2 pounds per week.

    • La Bandita

      She just broke up your meals for you. You could’ve done that yourself. Also I notice anyone who eats once a day are always really heavy – I think binge night time eater.

  • Kevin K

    15% is a whopping big deal, though, if you apply numbers to it.

    15% of 1500 calories is 225 calories. If you’re losing weight on 1500 calories and you get a 15% shift in BMR, that means you’d have to reduce your diet a whopping 225 calories to get the same impact, down to 1275 calories.

    That’s a BIG difference in terms of the amount of food you can eat. That’s half my usual breakfast.

    • La Bandita

      Your breakfast is huge.

      • Kevin K

        Actually, no.

        My diet is 1800 calories a day…which I usually divide thusly (give or take)..

        Breakfast = 450
        Lunch = 450
        Dinner = 700
        Snacks = 200
        Total = 1800

        15% of 1800 = 270. Which means MORE than half of either breakfast or lunch.

        The only alternative is to increase your exercise an equivalent amount. Which for me would be equivalent to an extra 30 minutes a day of walking…on top of the 60-90 minutes a day of exercise that I already do.

        The claim that a 15% reduction in base metabolism is trivial is math illiteracy.

        • La Bandita

          Maybe you can reduce your dinner. And 60-90 exercise is a lot, but pretty good.

          • Kevin K

            Not the point!

            The claim was made that a 15% reduction in base metabolism was essentially a trivial non-issue in terms of weight reduction. The MATH says differently. And it wouldn’t matter WHOSE diet we were discussing.

            15% reduction in base metabolism is NOT trivial.

          • La Bandita

            Reduce your 700 calorie dinner by 200 calories – so its 500 calories and reduce your 450 calorie breakfast by 70 calories to 380.

            Then report back to us – continue everything else. It’s the only way we’ll know if its not trivial.

          • Kevin K

            Again. NOT THE POINT.

            The POINT is that a 15% reduction in “calories out” is NOT trivial. It’s half a meal — ANYONE’S meal.

            I only used my own numbers as an example. Use your numbers, trust me, you’ll get exactly the same result. If your base metabolism reduces 15% in response to dieting, that — of necessity and by definition — translates into about a half of a MEAL’s worth of extra dieting in order to achieve the same results.

            It’s the concept I’m discussing. Not my diet specifically.

          • La Bandita

            Nope, I think you need to reduce your calories or you have no point.

          • Kevin K

            Are you trolling or just stupid?

          • La Bandita

            Either its trivial or cut 270 calories from your diet.

  • Apoorv Kaushal

    I’ve been on a 1500 calorie diet for 51 days now, initially i lost 12 pounds in the first two weeks or so and I was very happy but since then my weight loss has kind of stopped I have only lost merely 5 pounds in the next 40 days and now I feel disheartened although I’ve been logging everything that i eat and even the mfp tracker projects major weight loss in the next 5 weeks but it is just not happening. Can someone please tell me where I’m committing a mistake as each day I am well within my calorie limit.

    • La Bandita

      The good thing is you’re not gaining any weight. That’s the most important. Now you have to do different things with your diet. Try more protein, try more vegetables, try high fat and see what works for you individually. You’re not doing anything wrong. This is just the next step. Then work on an exercise plan. You have to get moving for 30 minutes at least 3 times a week.

      • Apoorv Kaushal

        Well i have been running almost 15 miles a week now

        • La Bandita

          The next step is to cut calories but only after you went over your food choices. Sometimes eating higher healthy fats and upping your protein helps as well. And no juices, sodas etc., unless you squeezed the apple yourself.

          • PaleoDave

            She may also want to consider that some level of metabolic adaptation has occurred. A good nutritionist can help guide her to whether she should cut more calories, add specific exercise, eat more to adjust metabolism upward or take some other approach recommended by the nutritionist. Sounds like Apoorv has a lot of data that will be useful. Research articles from PubMed about metabolic adaptation and reversing thermogenic adaption, and what the medical researchers are finding and recommending. Street jargon is calling it reverse dieting so googling that will give a sense of what the researchers are working on, but be sure to consider the source as you formulate a plan for action! Apoorv may also find reading about what medical researches are saying happened to the metabolisms of the “Biggest Loosers” of interest.

    • cakechamp

      Have you recalculated your calories based on your current weight? You will need to adjust your TDEE based on what you weigh now.

      • Apoorv Kaushal

        How do i do that? Can you please guide me through that?

        • cakechamp

          You say you are tracking on MFP so go into your settings, then into your profile, then under goals, change MFP to your current weight. This will give you your new daily calorie goal. Hope this helps.

          • Apoorv Kaushal

            Thanks a lot but I have already tried that

          • Apoorv Kaushal

            But my calorie goal is still the same i.e. 1500

  • Tammy

    BMR is the amount of calories a person needs for basic life functions… A persons TDEE is the amount of calories your body burns per day depending on activity level. A person should eat at their TDEE to maintain weight, eat below TDEE but above BMR to lose weight. With my activity level( workout at least 5 times a week) my TDEE is around 2200 calories and my BMR is around 1450 calories. I used to just eat 1200 calories i was not to losing the weight but ever since I started eating 500-750 calories below my TDEE for that day I use fitbit to get my TDEE and I have lost 13 inches in 1 month and 3 days.

  • Jim

    The author is combining a ton of different fat logic ideas. Their is the adaptation. But there is also her suggesting damage to your metabolism from dieting which is nonsense along with “starvation mode” which she calls self preservation mode. This is the claim that somehow the less you eat the more weight you gain because something about how the body continues to make fat instead of using fat for the main reason it exists.

  • Vanessa Williams

    wait….so he didn’t have excrement because it converted to fat?

    • Walt Corey

      Not quite the way it works. Food entering the mouth is digested and turned to useful stuff, sugar, carbohydrates etc and the ‘waste’ is excrement. Some digestion actually starts in the mouth itself, others occur in the stomach and still others in the intestines. Of interesting note, fructose can not be metabolized in the stomach or intestines but only in the liver. This is why fructose is so bad as it is directed straight to the liver. As fructose is usually consumed in conjunction with carbs which turn into glucose in the intestines and set straight into the blood to be used by cells, fructose being metabolized in the liver, by the time that occurs there is already enough glucose in the blood stream so the fructose gets stored as fat in the liver (bad). To your question those. Unused glucose is converted into glycogen and stored in the liver. From that amino acids can be synthesised as well as glucose. All the things necessary for life can be synthesized. Minerals, perhaps not so much as it takes nuclear fusion for that, iron etc. In the case of the world record holder, 13 months w/o eating, he lost, as I recall, 287lbs and was never hungry. When asked if he got hungry he, reportedly, responded, not so long as I have this, shaking his stomach. So, the whole starvation thing clearly is well… Google Intensive Dietary Management, Jason Fung, Michael Mosley and esp Roy Taylor (New Castle Magnetic Imaging Centre). I, further, encourage all interested to buy and read Obesity Code, Complete Guide to Fasting, Eight Week Blood Sugar Diet.

      • La Bandita

        So from personal experience (I have no experience with this) how long have you fasted? Was it hard/easy?

        • Walt Corey

          OK, one last time…yes I have and do. It’s hard the first time. The more you think about it the harder it is. You just have to do it. Maybe start with a 1 day fast, just promise yourself “tomorrow I will not eat” (but do drink water). Dr Fung talks about this in his book Obesity Code and his second book Complete Guide to Fasting. Also, and I mentioned this but the powers that be strip urls, google fasting and NIH. NIH is National Institute of Health. What you’ll find there are not opinions, not personal experience but research with actual research subjects and control groups and conclusions even if the conclusion is no difference. The rationale for 1 day to start is more psychological than metabolic. Prove to yourself you actually can do it. Then go to 2 days. Yet another book written by Dr Michael Mosley discusses his 5-2 diet. Eat normally for 5 days of the week then for 2 don’t eat. Is it hard or easy. Initially it’s hard but, IMHO, largely due to psychological reasons, like watching the rest of your family eat while you drink glasses of water or you cooking a fine meal for them that you cannot eat. What Dr Jason Fung (google Intensive Dietary Management) champions is IF, intermittent fasting. day one, eat 3 means then don’t eat until dinner the following day, rinse repeat. He calls that a 24hr fast. Personally, I think there is a math problem there. End your day 1 dinner at 7 and don’t eat again until 7 the next day. Unless you eat exceptionally quickly, you’ll wind up eating dinner at 4am. So shave an hour off and end dinner at 7pm and don’t eat until 6pm the following day. coffee, tea, and of course water are fine during day.The longest single fast I, personally have done is 7 days. I’ve done several 5 day fasts, several more 2 day fasts and routinely do the 24(23) hour intermittent fast every day. Eating one meal/day and occasionally having a ham and cheese rollup for lunch following day. Keep in mind one thing, as a biological species, why do we have fat at all? To survive when you don’t have food to eat.
          The more times you fast the easier it gets. In fact pg 239 of Obesity Code shows the stages of bodily responses to fasting. Ketosis (living off of stored fat) starts at around day 3 initially. If you have no stored reserves of glycogen it can start within 24hrs. The more you fast the easier/faster it is to transition to burning fat, not glucose.
          Google the following terms “fasting world record weight loss nih”. It will point you at a medical journal article of the same subject. Seriously, there is a lot of BS on the web so it behoves the looker to add the predicate NIH. Wikipedia is maybe 80% or less trustworthy because anyone can modify so there is no assurance.

          Oh, I lost just under 1/2 my body in about a year. Also don’t anyone trust the BMR web pages as they don’t and can’t factor in any metabolic adaptation so it’s going to only report ‘all things being equal’. All things are rarely equal.

          • La Bandita

            Thanks, honestly very informative. I run 3 to 5 miles in the morning and I am not giving it up, lol. Can you fast and exercise? Should everyone fast or is it just for overweight people? I am 5 7 and 137 pounds. I like to eat too.

          • Walt Corey

            Honestly, I wouldn’t worry about it @137. Sure, you can still exercise and fast. Remember fasting could be in an attempt to lose 287lbs or it could be for purely health reasons. I had given the first 4 phases of how the human body responds to fasting. The 5th is called protein conservation phase. This is where the body produces high quantities of HGH and adrenaline to preserve/maintain/increase BMR. This kicks in around day 5. It is written ppl fasting they get something of a euphoria and feel full of energy. I suspect this is much like “runner’s high”. I never experienced this to the point of feeling euphoric and full of energy. I do however do a lot of cardio 5 times/wk (18-20 miles / wk). You should seriously consider buying “The Complete Guide to Fasting” by Jason Fung, MD. He articulates 4 different rationales for fasting, from weight loss, diabetes, heart, younger/smarter you. I am guessing from the posts of yours I’ve seen (even if not directed at me) you might well enjoy Obesity Code as well, same author. Seriously, everything I’ve mentioned is from first hand experience or reading well researched, peer reviewed literature. About 2 yrs ago I was presented with earth shattering/existential diagnosis and, to quote Matt Daemon, I was forced to ‘science the shit out of it”. I became very well read on the current science and studies and current research. From both of those books you may further find Keto Clarity interesting. The later you probably want to read OC first as it is like 2nd/3rd year physiology on how the body works w/relevant studies referenced and footnoted. The guy is a a Nephrologist He wrote these books because, as he states, what little he learned in Med School and residency was largely wrong or, at least, incomplete and only proximal vs root cause. They aren’t expensive and if you are into digital (Kindle) I think they have electronic copies for even less. Bottom line, he ended up ‘scienc(ing) the shit out of it” too. And he shared what he learned along the way.
            A quick note. After discussing Protein Conservation Phase, his very next sentence is, “The human body is well adapted for dealing with the absence of food”. (fasting)

            By all means, do not take my word for it, research it yourself. I won’t be offended. Much research has been done in the last 30 yrs on weight, physiology, diabetes et al. that..well…it will shock you.

    • Walt Corey

      No Vanessa. Poop/excrement is largely a byproduct of eating. For instance someone said, “oh, you should try juicing”. Juicing is effectively eating vegetables with no fiber. Fiber basically cannot be broken down (digested) by people, termites yes, people no. So in the case of veggies, it is the fiber that comes out the other end. That is a simplistic example. So when you are living off fat, btw, like bears do in the winter, there is not a lot of waste as the food that led to the fat was already exited from the body. In that world record holder he pooped about once every 36 days, as I recall. It is not uncommon to fast for several days, or in some cases, several weeks. After the first 24-36 hrs the food in your digestive system is flushed through. So, for ppl saying they are having a heck of a time losing weight, stop eating. Seriously, stop eating, unless you have an underlying issue like type 1 diabetes. You won’t die. If, mathematically, you should burn 2,000 cals/day if you don’t eat and don’t have really bad insulin resistance, you will lose about 2/3 lb per day. Want to lose 10lbs, don’t eat for 2 weeks. Remember too, when you first start dieting the first several days its water weight that makes a lot of the weight loss you initially see.

      • Lori Green

        Walt I have a 20+ yr history of not eating…not anorexic..just a busy single parent of 3 kids and I have hashimoto’s and asthma. I just wasnt hungry or if i did get hungry I was busy at work/school/etc. a few bites and i was good to go..not hungry at dinner…ate to taste what I cooked for kids..few bites..good to go..I always cook , rare fast food. prednisone causes me to gain 5lbs a week when I am on it. all in the stomach..legs/arms much smaller. I often eat 400-700 calories ..only hungry 1 or 2 a week. Can you suggest a book for me? Thanks 🙂

        • Walt Corey

          Hi Lori, sure. Sounds like you are already intermittent fasting. I’d get “Complete Guide to Fasting” by Jason Fung, MD. Prednisone will cause weight gain. If you like CGF, you could get Obesity Code, same author. Depending on your insurance situation, get an Endocrinologist as they will be more fluent on drugs, hormones, diabetes, if that’s a possibility, etc.

          • Lori Green

            Thanks Walt, I do have an endocrinologist. All they do for Hashimoto’s is the same as for everyday hypothyroidism. They give you levothyroxine. My hair still falls out, can’t sleep, fatigue (although i power thru it..gotta earn that dollar! lol), can’t lose weight. They say that there is nothing else they can do as the AMA does not recognize Holistic medicine for Hashimoto’s. I tried 3x and he just says there is no scientific proof that holistic medicine helps. I even stressed the fact that it is an immune disorder,,*as is asthma, asked him about healing my immune system as there is a lot of talk about that going around, but he said sorry..will see you in 3 mos for your tsh levels. I cannot afford to pay out of pocket and am not willing to go totally against his directives unless I can find substaniative proof that he will at least agree to monitor me on 🙁 . Anyways thanks for the info on the literature. I will definitely get both of them 🙂 And I hope to have a decent medical insurance soon so that I can get a different doctor and endocrinologist if I have to. 😛

          • Lori Green

            ok responded here earlier..dont see it now..but…no biggie..just watched this video of interview with Jason Fung, MD…very informative! Am definitely buying these books…oh and googled them..they are not expensive either!!! Thanks so much for the Info!! 😀

  • JofJLTNCB6

    I’m just here for the n=1 arguments for the existence of “starvation mode” despite the overwhelming research evidence to the contrary.

  • dfprodz

    @La Bandita is stating pure facts and somehow it pisses some people off.

  • La Bandita

    Dont listen to any of us – you have medical issue.

  • La Bandita

    Constipation as you get older is real problem – from observation, haha. The bowels slow down and it ages people. Eating a big apple and/or drinking organic apple cider helps.
    Drinking lots of water helps. But the food you eat needs to be pushed out.

    Every 36days of poopy time is not ideal.

  • Ishmael Shelton

    I’m amazed by how many non-professions are ,eager to offer their opinions as proven facts. Not a single person gave one iota verifiable data to support claims. Evidently this has worked it’s way down and has become acceptable.

  • Walt Corey

    Buy either the book Obesity Code and read it twice, it’s a dense read, or watch the Jason Fung 6 part series Etiology of Obesity. It’s a six part series that was a precursor to his book. Get medical advise from doctors not bloggers.

    • Lori Green

      forget my other comment Walt..I have similar issue to KSB..so I will use this response as my answer and save you the trouble typing another LOL ..thanks 🙂

  • ManlyMiketheCOWARD byLOOKS

    Lol looks like the Reddit “pros” are here

  • Kate Lacy

    Goodness, this is an exceptionally empty article. Not much serious substance here at all. Just a hint of this and that.

  • amyhiggins2

    I have an eating disorder and I know when I eat way too much of something. The problem for me is that I won’t eat all day long, and then I’ll eat a healthy supper – and then after, eat a half gallon of frozen yogurt… so the next day I will not eat because I feel so ashamed. Over time, my metabolism has stopped working and I know I have to start exercising regularly to get it going again. I just want those who don’t have eating disorders to understand that there are fat people who do go for days without eating much – or eating very little. Then there are also many fat people who are in denial about how much they eat. I have felt so much shame about my binging that I couldn’t admit to myself or anyone else that I was a binger until I went to a 12-step program. Another thing I did to protect myself was to somehow blind myself from seeing how big I really was in the mirror. It seems a little crazy but it’s all about what we can and cannot handle dealing with or admitting to ourselves. It’s not as simple as it seems.

  • Wendy Howard

    Nine hundred calories a day is much too low. No doctor would recommend such a low calorie diet.

  • Angie

    This is not a myth. I would eat a kiwi per day and not lose weight. I have tried not eating many times and it never worked. Maybe it works to not gain weight, but not everyone loses weight by not eating enough. When I lost weight it was because I was eating a lot of food actually. I was folllowing a healthy diet and working out instead of depriving myself. It’s just very hard for me to eat as much as my professional tells me to eat, according to my height and weight. I do not have much of an apetite. Anyhow, this is no myth though I can’t explain why.

  • Walt Corey

    That’s one of the more a****** comments I’ve heard in a very long time. I’ve never advocated eating 1500 calories in one sitting I’m not sure where you got that from. Certainly where studies published is important like for instance if it’s published on your website it’s probably not important if it’s published by NIH it probably is important if it’s peer reviewed it’s probably important. Just so you’ll know I don’t single source anything. By the way high protein gets turned into the equivalent of high carb it doesn’t get stored, it gets converted, unless of course you’re a bodybuilder in which case it will get turned into muscle.

    • Renee Elsen

      Walt Coney, if high protein gets turned into high carb does that mean it then turns into fat?

      • Walt Corey

        That’s a good question. Logically, it would stand to reason, yes…if. The body does no store protein so you’d have to eat an awful lot of it. Carbs are converted to glycogen and excess glycogen is converted to fat. While I don’t have an alternative theory I’d have to conclude you are correct. The countervailing issue is only excess glycogen is converted to fat so for that to happen you’d have to really gorge yourself. A healthy metabolism would raise your REE to counteract.

  • Roberta Rogers

    Every one is in denial all you have to do is read the comments . Cut sugar and salt and eat clean not so hard to do you will have sugar withdraw for a week but you get over it. MODERATION IS KEY. 64 LBS OFF FOR ME